Paediatric Ophthalmology: Identifying and Treating Eye Conditions in Children

Parents want their children to grow up healthy and happy. One of the most important aspects of a child’s health is their vision. Good vision is crucial for a child’s development, as it affects their ability to learn and interact with the world around them. That is why it is important to take care of our children’s eyes and to be aware of any eye conditions that may develop.

Paediatric ophthalmology is a field of medicine that specialises in diagnosing and treating eye conditions in children. In this article, we will discuss some common eye conditions that can affect children, how to identify them, and what treatment options are available.


Common Eye Conditions in Children


Amblyopia is a condition where the brain ignores signals from one eye, resulting in reduced vision in that eye. It is usually caused by a misalignment of the eyes or a difference in the refractive power of the two eyes. Amblyopia can be treated by correcting the underlying problem and using patches or drops to strengthen the weaker eye.


Strabismus is a condition where the eyes are misaligned, causing one eye to look in a different direction than the other. This can cause double vision and can affect depth perception. Strabismus can be treated with eye muscle surgery glasses, or patching.

Refractive Errors

Refractive errors are conditions where the shape of the eye does not allow light to focus correctly on the retina, resulting in blurred vision. This can include nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), and astigmatism. Refractive errors can be treated with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery.

Congenital Cataracts

Congenital cataracts are cloudy areas in the lens of the eye that are present at birth. They can cause blurred vision and can lead to severe amblyopia if not treated early. Congenital cataracts can be removed surgically.

Paediatric Glaucoma

Paediatric glaucoma is a rare but serious condition that can cause damage to the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. It is caused by increased pressure in the eye, and may be present at birth or develop in childhood. Treatment options may include medication or surgery to lower the pressure in the eye.

Stye and Chalazion

Styes and chalazia are common eye conditions in children. Styes are small red bumps that develop on the eyelid, usually caused by an infection in the eyelash follicles. Chalazia are similar, but they are caused by a blocked oil gland in the eyelid. Both conditions can cause discomfort and redness, and may need to be treated with warm compresses and sometimes topical or oral antibiotics.


Conjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the white part of the eye. It can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection, allergies, or irritants. Conjunctivitis can cause redness, swelling, itching, and discharge. Treatment may include antibiotics or antiviral medication, depending on the cause.

Blocked Tear Duct

Blocked tear ducts are a common condition in infants, in which the tear ducts fail to open properly, leading to excessive tearing and discharge from the eye. In most cases, the condition will resolve on its own within the first year of life. However, in some cases, surgery may be required to open the tear duct. 

Droopy Eyelid

Droopy eyelid, also known as ptosis, is a condition in which the eyelid droops or hangs lower than normal. It can be caused by a number of factors, including congenital defects, muscle weakness, or nerve damage. Treatment options may include surgery to correct the position of the eyelid.

Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a condition that affects premature babies, in which abnormal blood vessels grow in the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. This can lead to scarring and retinal detachment, and can cause vision loss. Treatment may include laser therapy or surgery to repair the damaged retina.

Identifying Eye Conditions in Children

Children may not be able to communicate their vision problems effectively, so it is important to watch for signs that something may be wrong. Some common signs of vision problems in children include:

  • Frequent eye rubbing
  • Squinting
  • Head tilting
  • Holding books or objects very close to the face
  • Disinterest in reading or other close activities
  • Poor hand-eye coordination


If you notice any of these signs, it’s important to schedule an eye exam with a paediatric ophthalmologist.

Treatment Options

The treatment for eye conditions in children will depend on the specific condition and its severity. Paediatric ophthalmologists may use a variety of treatments, including glasses, contact lenses, patches, and surgery.


Glasses can correct refractive errors, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. They can also help to correct amblyopia by strengthening the weaker eye.

Contact Lenses

Contact lenses are an option for children who are old enough to handle them responsibly. They can correct refractive errors and can be used to treat amblyopia.


Patches are used to treat amblyopia by covering the stronger eye and forcing the brain to use the weaker eye. This can strengthen the weaker eye and improve vision.


Surgery may be necessary for conditions such as strabismus or congenital cataracts. Surgery can realign the eyes and remove cataracts, allowing for improved vision.


Paediatric ophthalmology is an important field that focuses on diagnosing and treating eye conditions in children. As parents, it’s important to watch for signs of vision problems and seek treatment promptly if you suspect that your child may have an eye condition. Early intervention can prevent long-term vision problems and improve your child’s quality of life.

At Clarity Eye Surgeons, our experienced paediatric ophthalmologists are dedicated to providing the best possible care for children’s eye health. We use state-of-the-art technology and techniques to diagnose and treat a range of eye conditions in children, from routine eye exams to complex surgeries.

If you have concerns about your child’s vision or would like to schedule an eye exam, please contact us to make an appointment. Our friendly staff will be happy to answer any questions you may have and help you get the care your child needs to see clearly and thrive.

Author Bio

Dr Parth Shah is a director and principal ophthalmologist at Clarity Eye Surgeons in Canberra, specialising in paediatric ophthalmology. With extensive training and experience, he is renowned for his expertise in the field. Dr Shah is dedicated not only to performing successful surgeries but also to patient education. His compassionate approach, combined with technical proficiency, has earned him the trust and gratitude of countless patients. He is a true advocate for eye health and a trusted name in the Canberra ophthalmology community.